JADEITE AND NEPHRITE
Our word ‘jade’ comes from the Spanish ‘piedra de ijada’, or loin-stone, named because of jade’s reputed ability to heal ailments of that area, especially the kidneys. The word jade actually denotes two stones, jadeite and nephrite, both of which are accepted as genuine jade. Both stones also have long histories of being a healing stone for the loins. This of course makes them both ideal for yoni eggs.
However, there are some differences between the two jades that are worth noting. While nephrite is seen in shades of green, white and grey, jadeite can be found in a spectrum of colors including white, yellow, blue, pink, violet, orange and black.
Both nephrite and jadeite are metamorphic rocks commonly marked with veins or imperfections. Nephrite has a fibrous crystalline structure, which means that the grains of the stone line up in parallel planes, which you can often see if you look carefully. Because of this, nephrite’s polish finishes matte, but the stone itself is tougher and less prone to shattering. Jadeite’s poly-crystalline structure is granular so that the grains in the rock are fused together like interlocking tiles. This makes jadeite harder and heavier and causes it to shine up to a nice mirror polish.
That said, both jadeite and nephrite are harder than steel and tougher than diamonds. This means that a steel knife will not scratch even the most highly polished jade. And while a hammer will smash nearly all diamond crystals, many jade stones withstand hits from a 16-pound sledgehammer, making jade (nephrite and jadeite) one of the toughest stones around.
The largest deposits of jadeite are found in Guatemala, Myanmar and Russia. In Guatemala, jadeite’s noble characteristics have been honored by Mesoamerican cultures for thousands of years. The green stone was held to be the stone of the gods (see below). Today, high-quality jadeite can fetch prices that exceed that of diamonds.
Although jadeite is accepted as the more valuable of the two jades, nephrite holds its own in the jade world. The bright, smooth greens of Canadian and New Zealand nephrite, for example, can create astoundingly beautiful carvings, and in ancient China, white nephrite “mutton fat” jade was considered fit only for emperors.
YAX TUN (Green Stone in Maya)
As far as we know, the first humans to use jadeite were the Swiss in roughly 4,000 B.C. Their stilt-houses high in the alpine lakes are thought to have been at least partly built with tools shaped from nephrite and jadeite found in river beds alongside their villages. Their jade axes, hammers, clubs and scrapers were among the first known items of nephrite and jadeite to be fashion by man; the stone’s incredible hardness made it ideal for tools and weapons. At about the same time, the humble tribes that were to become the great empires of Egypt and China were beginning to fashion tools and figurines from local nephrite. Indeed, jade was used all over the world, independently mastered by as many cultures as there were jadeite and nephrite deposits found. Jadeite, even through the Iron and Bronze Ages, proved as useful if not more useful than most metal implements. Not until modern times, with the mastering of metal alloys, was jadeite surpassed as a material for tools.
Though the Swiss were the first to utilize jadeite, it was the Olmecs of Mesoamerica who were the first to reveal true art within the shape and smoothness of the stone (the Chinese have been carving nephrite for at least 7000 years). By the year 2,000 B.C. the Olmecs were already master carvers of jadeite—their exceptional work is still being examined, copied and mimicked to this day. They clearly set the bench-mark for artistry in jadeite, and their carving traditions were passed down for millennia, first to the Mayas and then to the Aztec culture. In fact, Olmec masks, celts, jewelry and other jadeite figures were collected as antiques by these later Mesoamerican cultures—much like their contemporaries on the other side of the world, who treasured surviving artifacts from the collapse of Rome.
In whatever form, jade, mined from the Motagua river valley in Guatemala, was the most valuable material in Mesoamerica, and was used for a variety of things both sacred and profane. Often shaped into statues and jewelry for the elite, the finest jadeite would be used to make powerful amulets for sacred rites or burials, while common jade beads were used as a form of currency.
Despite centuries of contact with the Chinese and their greatly-honored nephrite, jade (specifically jadeite) was first introduced to the Europeans through the Conquistadors in the 16th century. Cortéz begrudgingly received the finest imperial jadeite beads the Aztecs had to offer, disappointed in any tribute that was not gold. Stories have been past down of Spaniards tromping through the Central American jungle, falling upon a sacred temple and finding only “manuscripts and green beads”, which they promptly burned.
When the Spanish conquest destroyed most of the Maya and Aztec cultures, the artistry of the American jadeite masters faded back into the earth, along with the location of the great jadeite mines, remaining unknown for centuries. In 1987 the source of Olmec (and all of Mesoamerica) jadeite was finally rediscovered in Guatemala. Thus began the reassertion of American jadeite that continues to grow today.
Not to be ignored in this modern era are the Chinese, whose masterwork in nephrite since before 5,000 B.C. easily translated to Burmese jadeite when it was introduced to them in the 19th century. Today, two hundred years later, they are the current jadeite masters. Their carvings and jewelry, which reflect a grand and ancient culture, are revered and admired throughout the world. Additionally, the Chinese are the largest consumers of jadeite in today’s market, and possess a large portion of the highest quality jadeite found worldwide.
Humanity’s relationship with jade has lasted thousands of years, and perhaps for this reason it is seen as such an elemental stone. The deep green color has been associated with the ancient cult of the serpent, and has represented fertility, water and life to the Olmecs since the beginning of their history. Beyond its physical characteristics, jade has a strong energy that has been harnessed for a variety of things. For ancient Mesoamerican cultures, jade was used as a stone of magic and power, which was why much of its use was restricted to priests and kings. For instance, placed under the head while sleeping, jade was believed to promote lucid dreaming and the power to use dreams as a means to create and change waking reality. They also attributed jade with bringing good fortune and slowing the process of aging. In gemstone therapy the serene green stone brings a balancing and harmonizing effect, helping release negative thoughts and realize calmness and peace. Emerald jade, or imperial jade, is especially helpful in repairing or fortifying relationships.